Sex and Depression

When a patient tells me that she no longer enjoys sex, one of first things I ask her is to tell me about something that she does enjoy.

If she isn’t able to come up with a fairly quick answer, in my experience it’s likely that depression is playing a part in her loss of libido.

Anhedonia -- the inability to gain pleasure from normally pleasurable experiences -- is a core clinical feature of depression. And because depression affects nearly twice as many women as men, and because recent studies suggest that midlife is a period of increased risk for depression in women, I am always on the alert when a patient mentions that she has stopped enjoying activities -- like sex -- that used to give her pleasure.

The cause-and-effect relationships between menopause and depression and between depression and loss of libido are complicated -- to say the least!

Some studies suggest that changes in hormonal levels, such as those that occur during the transition to menopause, may trigger depression. The production of mood-enhancing neurotransmitters is boosted by estrogen. Lower levels of estrogen that accompany menopause can mess with the brain’s chemical balance, leading to depression. Other biochemical changes that come with age, such as those that result from decreased thyroid function, have also been linked to the onset of depression.

But the pressures and stresses associated with midlife surely play a role as well. The loss of our youthful looks, of our reproductive and mothering roles, and sometimes even of our jobs or life partners -- all make us vulnerable to depression as we move into and through our menopausal years.

Whatever the cause -- and at whatever age -- depression has a significant impact on sexual function and enjoyment. Nearly half of all women -- and men -- diagnosed with depression report that it interferes with their sexuality.

The good news: If depression is behind your loss of interest in and enjoyment of sex, there is an array of proven treatments to relieve the underlying cause and its symptoms. Your doctor can help identify and treat medical causes, such as thyroid problems. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy that elevates estrogen levels may be effective. Antidepressants that help correct chemical imbalances in the brain help many (although these may have their own sexual side-effects). Regular exercise, improved sleep habits, and dietary changes can help to counteract depression, and counseling and support groups are other options to explore.

Don’t let depression drain the pleasure from your life. Talk to your doctor. See our website for more information on hormonal changes and therapeutic resources. And if you have experienced and overcome anhedonia in your own sex life, we’d love to hear your story!


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