It’s October. That means, yes, Halloween and fall color, the harvest moon, pumpkins, and apples. Also breast cancer awareness. Not necessarily in that order.
To recognize that dubious distinction, let’s review some breast cancer basics, beginning with the most important of the known risk factors that you may (or may not) be able to do anything about. In this case, knowledge is, if not power, at least awareness.
We’ve all lost friends and relatives to breast cancer. Maybe we’ve even had it ourselves. That’s because breast cancer remains the most common cancer for women. Fortunately, we’ve seen some advances in screening and treatment methods, but still one in eight of us (12 percent) will be diagnosed with breast cancer sometime in our lives, and one in thirty-six (3 percent) will die from it.
The good news is that breast cancer rates have been going down since 1989 (although they’ve stabilized lately). Still, every year almost 245,000 new cases are diagnosed and 40,890 women die from it.
We all carry risk factors for breast cancer, but there are very few absolutes when it comes to who actually gets the disease. Some high-risk women never get cancer while others with a very low risk profile do. The two most universal and unavoidable risk factors are being a woman and getting older. Although about 2,000 men are diagnosed with breast cancer every year, it’s overwhelmingly a female disease. It’s also largely a malady of older women. Two-thirds of invasive cancers are found in women over 55.
Genetics is, of course, a factor, but it may be less significant than we think. Most women (eight in ten) with some genetic predisposition to breast cancer never get it. However, the more genetic factors you have, the higher the risk. So, if you have several genetic risk factors, your chances of diagnosis increase. The most significant genetic factors are:
Other risks that we can’t control include:
Some risk factors for breast cancer have more to do with lifestyle and treatment choices—and these are factors we can control. These lifestyle choices impact our health and quality of life in a whole bunch of ways, so it’s important to pay attention to them.
Cancer is complex and multi-faceted. One risk factor doesn’t--or even several risk factors don’t inevitably equal cancer. There are gradations and mitigating factors and a whole lot of unknowns. Some things, such as exposure to certain chemicals, are considered “emerging risks,” which may or may not hold up under research, while others, such as wearing an underwire bra, have absolutely no supporting evidence.
I think the best approach is to understand your risk profile, but then live your life as richly and healthfully as you can. The most important thing you can do, bar none, is to maintain a healthy lifestyle (more on this in the next post). Then review your plan for screening every year--and follow through.